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Peer-reviewed articles (* student or post-doctoral collaborator)



Perfecto, I., Z. Hajian-Forooshani*, A. Iverson, A. Irizarry, N. Medina*, C. Vaidya*, A. White*, J. Vandermeer. 2019. Response of coffee farms to Hurricane Maria: resistance and resilience from an extreme climatic event. Scientific Reports 9(1), 1-11.


Iverson*, A., D. Gonthier, D. Pak*, K. Ennis, R. Burnham, I. Perfecto, M. Ramos Rodriguez, J. Vandermeer. 2019. A multifunctional approach for achieving simultaneous biodiversity conservation and farmer livelihood in coffee agroecosystems. Biological Conservation 238: 108179.


Vandermeer, J. and I. Perfecto. 2019. Complex systems in applied ecology: the case of the green coffee scale. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 116 (30): 15074-15079.


McCune*, N., I. Perfecto, K. Aviles-Vazquez, J. Vazquez-Negron, J. Vandermeer. 2019. Peasant balances and agroecological scaling in Puerto Rican coffee farmers. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 43 (7-8): 810-826 (DOI: 10.1080/21683565.2019.1608348)


Perfecto, I., M. E. Jimenez Soto, and J. Vandermeer. 2019. Coffee Landscapes Shaping the Anthropocene: A Socio-Ecological Portrait of Coffee Plantations in the Soconusco Region of Chiapas, Mexico. Current Anthropology 60, Supplement 20, S236-S250.


Blesh, J, L. Hoey, A. Jones, H. Friedmann, and I. Perfecto. 2019. Development pathways toward “zero hunger”. World Development 118: 1-14.


Glum*, P., G. Fitch* , M. C. Simao* , C, Vaidya* , J. Matthijs* , B. Iuliano* , I. Perfecto. 2019. Changes in adult sex ratio in wild bee communities are linked to urbanization. Scientific Reports 9, Article number 3767.


Kobusinge, J., H. G. Kagazi., A. Kasoma, P. Kucel, L. Nikibuule, I. Perfecto and W.W. Wagoire. 2018. Farmer’s knowledge of pests and diseases in the coffee-banana agroforestry systems of mid-eastern Uganda. Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences 7(2): Abstract 12 (DOI: 10.15640/jaes.v7n2a12).


Allen, D., A. Strayer, C. W. Dick, I. Perfecto and J. Vandermeer. 2018. Scale and strength of oak-mesophyte interactions in a transition oak-hickory forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 48(11): 1366-1372.


Simao*, M. C., J. Matthijs and I. Perfecto. 2018. Experimental small-scale floral patches increase species density but not abundance of small urban bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Journal of Applied Ecology 55: 1759-1768.


Vandermeer, J. and I. Perfecto. 2018. Ecological complexity in the Rosennean framework. Ecological Complexity 35: 45-50.


Iverson*, A, D. Jackson, R. Burnham, I. Perfecto, N. Vandenberg* and J. Vandermeer. 2018. Species complementarity in two myrmecophilous lady beetle species in a coffee agroecosystem: implications for biological control. BioControl 63(2): 253-264.


Vandermeer, J., A. Aga, J. Allgeiers, C. Badgley, R. Baucom, J. Blesh, L. F. Shapiro, A.D. Jones, L. Hoey, M. Jains, I. Perfecto and M. Wilson. 2018. Feeding Prometheus: An interdisciplinary approach for solving the global food crisis. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, Volume 2, article 39


Vandermeer, J., Z. Hajian-Forooshani and I. Perfecto. 2018. The dynamics of the coffee rust disease: an epidemiological approach using network theory. European Journal of Plant Pathology 150(4): 1001-1010.




Nikubuule, L., G. H. Kagezy, P. Kuzel, J. Kubisinge, W. W. Wagoire, G. Kisolo, and I. Perfecto. 2017. Farmer’s knowledge of agronomic and abiotic constrains in the coffee-banana agroforestry system of south-western Uganda. International Journal of Nutrition and Agricultural Research 4 (2): 1005-1012.

Fisher*, K., and I. Perfecto. 2017. Phenological floral resource complementarity explains patterns in bee abundance. Ecological Applications 27(6): 1815-1826.


Morris*, J. R., E. Jiménez-Soto*, S.M. Philpott and I. Perfecto. 2017. Ant-mediated biological control of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari): diversity, ecological complexity, and conservation biocontrol. Myrmecological News 26: 1-17.


Vandermeer, J. and I. Perfecto. 2017. Ecological complexity in agroecosystems: seven themes from theory. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 41(7): 697-722.


Yitbarek*, S., J. Vandermeer and I. Perfecto. 2017. From insinuator to dominator: foraging switching by an exotic ant. Diversity and Distributions 23: 820-827.


Garcia-Barrios, L., J. Cruz-Morales, J., Vandermeer, and I. Perfecto. 2017. The Azteca Chess Experience: Learning how to share concepts of ecological complexity with small coffee farmers. Ecology and Society 22(2): 37. *Winner of the Best Paper of Ecology and Society Award of 2017.


Monagan*, I., J. Morris*, A. Davis-Robosky, I. Perfecto and J. Vandermeer. 2017. Anolis lizards as biocontrol agents in mainland and island agroecosystems. Ecology and Evolution 7: 2193-2203.


Vaidya*, C., M. Cruz*, R. Kauzel*, D. J. Gonthier*, A. L. Iverson*, K. K. Ennis* and I. Perfecto. 2017. Local and landscape constraints on coffee leafhopper diversity. Journal of Insect Science 17(2): 38; 1-7 (doi: 10.1093/jisesa/iew127).


Li*, K., Y. He*, S. K. Campbell*, S. Colborn*, E. L. Jackson*, A. Martin*, I. V. Monagan*, W. Y. Ong* and I. Perfecto. 2017.  From endogenous to exogenous pattern formation: Invasive plant species changes the spatial distribution of a native ant. Global Change Biology 23: 2250-2261. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13671


Wittman, H., D. J. Abson, R. Bezner Kerr, J. Blesh, M. J. Chappell, J. Hanspach, I. Perfecto and J. Fischer. 2017. A socioecological perspective on harmonizing food security and biodiversity conservation. Regional Environmental Change 17 (5): 1291:1301. doi 10.1007/s10113-016-1045-9




Maas, B. D. S. Karp, S. J. Bumrungsri, K. Darras, D. Gonthier*, J. C. –C. Huang, C. Lindell, J. Maine, L. Mestre, L. Michel, E. Morrison, I. Perfecto, S. M. Philpott, C. H. Sekercioglu, R. M. Silva, P. Taylor, T. Tscharntke, S. Van Bael, C. J. Whelan, and K. Williams-Guillén*. 2016.  Bird and bat predation services in tropical forestry and agroforestry landscapes. Biological Reviews 91(4): 1081-1101.


Morris*, J. R. and I. Perfecto. 2016. Testing the potential for ant predation of immature coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) life stages. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 233: 224-238.


Hajian-Forooshani*, Z., I. S. Rivera Salinas*, E.  Jimenez-Soto*, I. Perfecto and J. Vandermeer. 2016. Impact of regionally distinct agroecosystems communities on the potential for autonomous control of the coffee leaf rust. Environmental Entomology 45 (6): 1521-1526. doi: 10.1093/ee/nvw125.


Goulard, F., I. Perfecto, J. Vandermeer, D. Boucher, M. J. Chappell, G. Wilson Fernandez, A. Scariot, M. Correa Da Silva, W. L. Oliviera, R. Neville, J. Moor, M. Bustamante, S. Carvalho Ribeiro, B. Soares-Filho. 2016. The doubt promise of beef production to environmental conservation: Response to Oliveira Silva. Nature Climate Change 6: 893-894.


Garcia-Barrios, L., J. Vandermeer, and I. Perfecto. 2016. Ecological Complexity Game; Shade Coffee; Educational Board-Game; Autonomous Pest Control; Trait mediated interactions. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 232 (2016): 190-198.


Li*, K., J. Vandermeer and I. Perfecto. 2016 Agricultural intensification increases the spatial distribution of an endogenous biological control system through the mediating role of trees in a coffee agroecosystem. Royal Society Open Science 3: 160073.


James, T. Y., J. A. Marino, I. Perfecto and J. Vandermeer. 2016. Identification of coffee rust mycoparasites using single molecule DNA sequencing of infected pustules. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 82 (2): 631-636.


Maas, B. D. S. Karp, S. J. Bumrungsri, K. Darras, D. Gonthier*, J. C. –C. Huang, C. Lindell, J. Maine, L. Mestre, L. Michel, E. Morrison, I. Perfecto, S. M. Philpott, C. H. Sekercioglu, R. M. Silva, P. Taylor, T. Tscharntke, S. Van Bael, C. J. Whelan, and K. Williams-Guillén*. Bird and bat predation services in tropical forestry and agroforestry landscapes. Biological Reviews.


Marin*, L., S. M. Philpott, A. de la Mora, G. Ibarra, S. Tryban and I. Perfecto. 2016. Response of ground spiders to local and landscape factors in a Mexican coffee landscape. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 222: 80-92.




Perfecto, I. and J. Vandermeer. 2015. Structural constraints in novel ecosystems in agriculture: the rapid emergence of stereotypic modules. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 17: 522-530.


Morris*, J. J. Vandermeer and I. Perfecto. 2015. A keystone ant species provides robust biological control of the coffee berry borer under varying pest densities. PLoS ONE 10(11): e0142850. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0142850.


Vandermeer, J., P. Rohani and I. Perfecto. 2015. Local dynamics of the coffee rust disease and the potential effect of shade. arXiv:1510.05849


Marin*, L.E., Jackson, D. and I. Perfecto. 2015. Spatially explicit positive associations between ants and spiders and its potential mechanisms. Oikos 124: 1078-1088.




Iverson*, A., L. Marin*, K. Ennis*, D. Gonthier*, J. Remfert*, J. O’Connor- Barrie*, B. Cardinale and I. Perfecto. 2014. Do polycultures promote win-wins or tradeoffs in agricultural ecosystem services?: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology 51: 1593-1602.


Perfecto, I., J. Vandermeer and S. M. Philpott. 2014. Complex ecological interactions in the coffee agroecosystem. Annual Reviews of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 45: 137-158.


Gonthier,* D. J., K. K. Ennis*, S. Farinas*, H.Y. Hsieh*, A. L. Iverson*, P. Batary, J. Rodolphi, T. Tscharntke, B. J. Cardinale and I. Perfecto. 2014. Biodiversity conservation in agriculture requires a multi-scale approach. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 281 (1791): 20141358


Hajian-Forooshani, Z.*, D. J. Gonthier*, L. Marin*, A. L. Iverson* and I. Perfecto. 2014. Changes in species diversity of arboreal spiders in Mexican coffee agroecosystems: Untangling the web of local and landscape influences driving diversity. PeerJ 2:e623; DOI 10.7717/peerj.623


Jackson*, D., D. Allen*, I. Perfecto and J. Vandermeer. 2014. Self-organization of background habitat determines the nature of population spatial structure. Oikos 123 (6): 751-761.


Kuesel*, R., D. J. Gonthier*, M. Cruz*, C. Vaiyda*, Iverson*, A. L. and I. Perfecto. 2014. Local management and landscape use intensity associated with a coffee leaf-chewing beetle. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 38(5): 532-440.


Liere, H.*, I. Perfecto and J. Vandermeer. 2014. Stage-dependent response to habitat heterogeneity: consequences for a predatory insect population in a coffee agroecosystem. Ecology and Evolution 4 (16): 3201-3209


Jackson*, D., J. Vandermeer, I. Perfecto and S. Philpott. 2014. Population responses to environmental change in a tropical ant: the interaction of spatial and temporal dynamics. PLoS ONE 9(5): e97809. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097809.


Vandermeer, J., D. Jackson* and I. Perfecto. 2014. Qualitative dynamics of the coffee rust epidemic: educating the intuition with theoretical ecology. BioScience 2014; doi: 10.1093/biosci/bit034.




Briggs*, H. M., I. Perfecto and B. J. Brosi. 2013. The role of the agricultural matrix: coffee management and Euglossine bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) communities in southern Mexico. Environmental Entomology 42 (6): 1210-1217.


Chappell, M.J., H. Wittman, C. Bacon B. Ferguson, L. García Barrios, R. García Barrios, J. Lima, V. E. Méndez, H. Morales, L. Soto

Pinto, J. Vandermeer, and I. Perfecto. 2013. Food sovereignty: an alternative paradigm for poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation in Latin America. F1000Research 2013, 2: 235 (doi:10.12688/f1000research.2-235.v1)


Silva*, E.N. and I. Perfecto. 2013. Coexistence of aphid predators in cacao plants: Does ant-aphid mutualism play a role? Sociobiology 60:259-265.


Jímenez-Soto*, M. E., J. A. Cruz-Rodríguez, J. Vandermeer and I. Perfecto. 2013. Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and its interactions with Azteca instabilis and Pheidole synanthropica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a shade coffee agroecosystem. Environmental Entomology 42: 915-924.


Belasen*, A., E. Burkett*, A. Injaian*, K, Li*, D. Allen*, and I. Perfecto. 2013. Effect of subcanopy on habitat selection in the blue-spotted salamander (Ambystoma laterale-jeffersonianum unisexual complex). Copeia 2013 (2): 254- 261.


Gonthier*, D. J., K.K. Ennis*, S.M. Philpott, J. Vandermeer and I. Perfecto. 2013. Ants defend coffee berry borer colonization. BioControl (online first: BioControl DOI 10.1007/s10526-013-9541-z


Cunningham, S. A., S.J. Attwood, K.S. Bawa, T.G. Benton, L.M., Broadhurst, R.K. Didham, S. McIntyre, I. Perfecto, M.J. Samsways, T. Tscharntke, J. Vandermeer, M.A. Villard, A.G. Young and D.B. Lindenmayer. 2013. To close the yield-gap while saving biodiversity will require multiple locally relevant strategies. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 173: 20-27.


Marin*, L. and I. Perfecto. 2013. Spider diversity in agroecosystems: the influence of agricultural intensification and aggressive ants. Environmental Entomology 42: 204-213.


Perfecto, I. and J. Vandermeer. 2013. Ant assemblages on a coffee farm: spatial mosaic versus shifting patchwork. Environmental Entomology 42: 38-48.


Vandermeer, J. and I. Perfecto. 2013. Complex traditions: Intersecting theoretic frameworks in agroecological research. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 37: 76-89.


Vandermeer, J. and I. Perfecto. 2013. Tradiciones complejas: interseccion de marcos teóricos en la investigación agroecológica. Agroecología 8 (2): 55-64. (this is a expanded translation of the article published in Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, listed as #19)




Vandermeer, J. and I. Perfecto. 2012. Syndromes of production in agriculture: Prospects for socio-ecological regime change. Ecology and Society 17 (4): 39.


Perfecto, I. and J. Vandmermeer. 2012. Separación o integración para la conservación de biodiversidad: la ideología detrás del debate “land-sharing versus land-sparing.” Ecosistemas 21: 180-191.


Jha*, S., D. Allen*, I. Perfecto and J. Vandermeer. 2012. Mutualism and population regulation: mechanism matters. PLos One 7(8): e43510. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043510.


Hsieh*, H. and I. Perfecto. 2012. Ecological impacts of phorid parasitoids on ant communities. Psyche, doi:10.1155/2012/380474


Hsieh*, S., H. Liere*, M. E. Jiménez Soto* and I. Perfecto. 2012. Cascading trait-mediated interactions induced by ant pheromones. Ecology and Evolution 2(9): 2181-2191. doi: 10.1002/ece3.322


Tacharntke, T., Y. Clogh, L. Jackson, I. Motzke, I. Perfecto, J. Vandermeer, T. C. Wanger and A. Whitbread. 2012. Global food security, biodiversity conservation and the future of agricultural intensification. Biological Conservation 151: 53-59 (Faculty of 1000 Recommended )


Mates*, S., C. Badgley and I. Perfecto. 2012. Parasitoid wasp diversity in apple orchards along a pest management gradient. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 156: 82-88.




Fisher, J., P. Batáry, K. Bawa, L. Brussard, M. H. Chappell, Y. Clough, G. C. Daily, J. Dorrough, T. Hartel, L. E. Jackson, A. M. Klein, C. Kremen, T. Kaumerle, D. Lindenmayer, H. A. Mooney, I. Perfecto, S. M. Philpott, T. Tscharntke, J. Vandermeer, T. C. Wagner and H. von Wehrden. 2011. Conservation: Limits of land sparing. Science 334: 593.


Perfecto, I. and J. Vandermeer. 2011. Discovery Dominance tradeoff as a mechanism of coexistence: the case of Pheidole subarmata and Solenopsis geminata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Neotropical pastures. Environmental Entomology 40: 999-1006.


Lin*, B. B., M. J. Chappell, J. Vandermeer, G. R. Smith, E. Quintero, R. Bezner- Kerr, D. Griffith, S. Ketchum, S. Latta, P. McMichael, K. McGuire, R. Nigh, D. Rocheleau, J. Soluri, and I. Perfecto. 2011. Effects of industrial agriculture on global warming and the potential of small-scale agroecological farming to mitigate those effects. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources 6 (20): 1-18.


Goulard*, F. F., J. Vandermeer, I. Perfecto and R. Matta-Machado. 2011. Frugivory by five bird species in agro-forest homegardens of Pontal do Paranepanema, Brazil. Agroforestry Systems 82: 239-246.


Tscharntke, T., Y. Clough, S. A. Bhagwat, H. Faust, D. Hertel, D. Hölscher, J. Juhrbandt, M. Kessler, I. Perfecto, G. Schroth, and E. Veldkamp. 2011. Ecological principles of multifunctional shade-tree management in cacao agroforestry landscapes. Journal of Applied Ecology 48: 619-629.


William-Guillén*, K. and I. Perfecto. 2011. Insectivorous Bats Demonstrate Variable Responses to Agricultural Intensification in a Neotropical Agroforestry System. PloS ONE 6: e16502.




Perfecto, I., J. Vandermeer and S. M. Philpott. 2010. Complejidad ecológica y el control de plagas en un cafetal orgánico: develando un servicio ecosistémico autónomo. Agroecología 5: 41-51


William-Guillén*, K. and I. Perfecto. 2010 Effects of agricultural intensification on the assemblage of leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) in a coffee landscape in Chiapas, Mexico. Biotropica 42: 605-613


Perfecto, I. and J. Vandermeer. 2010 The agricultural matrix as an alternative to the land-sparing/agricultural intensification model: facing the food and biodiversity crises. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 107:5786- 5791.


Vandermeer, J., I. Perfecto and S. M. Philpott. 2010. Ecological complexity and pest control in organic coffee production: uncovering an autonomous ecosystem service. BioScience 60: 527-537.


Vandermeer, J., I. Perfecto and N. Schellhorn. 2010. Propagating sinks, ephemeral sources and percolating mosaics: Conservation in landscapes. Landscape Ecology 25: 509-518.




Jha*, S., J. Vandermeer, and I. Perfecto. 2009. Population dynamics of Coccus viridis, a ubiquitous ant-tended agricultural pest, assessed by a new photographic method. Bulletin of Insectology 62: 183-189.


Ferguson, B. G. H. Morales, A. González Rojas, F. de Jesús Íñiguez Pérez, M. E. Martínez Torres, K. McAfee, R. Nigh, I. Perfecto, S. M. Philpott, L. Soto Pinto, J. Vandermeer, R. M. Vidal, L. E. Ávila Romero, H. Bernardino, R. Realpozo Reye. 2009. Soberania alimentaria: Cultivando nuevas alianzas entre campo, bosque y ciudad. Agroecología 4: 49-58. Also printed in: Altieri, M. A. (ed.) Vertientes del pensamiento agroecológico, Sociedad Científica Latinoamericana de Agroecología, Medellín, Colombia.


Goulart*, F., J. Vandermeer and I. Perfecto. 2009. Agroecologia na quebra de dois paradigmas modernos (Agroecological analysis of two modern paradigms). Revista Brasileira de Agroecologia 4: 76-85.


Allen*, D., J. Vandermeer and I. Perfecto. 2009. Are Islands really habitat Islands? Forest Ecology and Management 258: 2033-2036.


Vandermeer, J., I. Perfecto, and H. Liere*. 2009. Evidence for effective hyperparasitism on the coffee rust, Hemileia vastatrix, by the generalized insect pathogen, Lecanicillium (Verticillium) lecanii through a complex ecological web. Plant Pathology 58: 636-641


Philpott S. M., I. Perfecto, J. Vandermeer, and S. Uno*. 2009. Spatial scale and density dependence in a host parasitoid system: an arboreal ant, Azteca instabilis and its Pseudacteon phorid parasitoid. Environmental Entomology 38: 790-796.


Jackson*, D., J. Vandermeer and I. Perfecto. 2009 Spatial and temporal dynamics of a fungal pathogen promotes pattern formation in a tropical agroecosystem. The Open Ecology Journal 2: 62-73.


Gordon, C. E., B. McGill, G. Ibarra-Núñez, R. Greenberg, and I. Perfecto. 2009. Simplification of a coffee foliage-dwelling beetle community under low-shade management. Basic and Applied Ecology 10: 246-254.


Chappell, M. J., J. Vandermeer, C. Badgley and I. Perfecto. 2009. Wildlife-friendly farming versus land sparing (Peer-reviewed letter). Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7: 183.




Philpott, S. M., W. J. Arendt, I. Armbrecht, P. Bichier, T. V. Dietsch, C. Gordon, R. Greenberg, I. Perfecto, R. Reynoso-Santos, L. Soto-Pinto, C. Tejada-Cruz, G. Williams-Linera, J. Valenzuela, and S.M. Zolotoff. 2008. Biodiversity loss in Latin America coffee landscapes: review of the evidence on ants, birds and trees. Conservation Biology 22: 1093-1105.


Lin*, B. B., I. Perfecto and J. Vandermeer. 2008. Synergies between agricultural intensification and climate change could create surprising vulnerabilities for crops. BioScience 58: 847-854.


Perfecto, I. and J. Vandermeer. 2008. Biodiversity conservation in tropical agroecosystems: A new paradigm. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, (The Year in Ecology and Conservation Biology 2008) 1134: 173-200.


Williams-Guillén*, K., I. Perfecto, and J. Vandermeer. 2008. Bats control arthropod populations in a Neotropical agroforestry system. Science 320: 70.


Perfecto, I., and J. Vandermeer. 2008. Spatial pattern and ecological process in the coffee agroecosystem. Ecology 89: 915-920. (Special Feature)


Greenberg, R., I. Perfecto and S. M. Philpott. 2008. Agroforests as model systems for tropical ecology. Ecology 89: 913-914. (Special Feature)


Blair*, B. and I. Perfecto. 2008. Root proliferation and nutrient limitations in a Nicaraguan rain forest. Caribbean Journal of Science 44:36-42.


Philpott, S. M., I. Perfecto, J. Vandermeer. 2008. Behavioral diversity of predatory arboreal ants in coffee agroecosystems. Environmental Entomology 37: 181-191.


Philpott S. M., I. Perfecto, J.Vandermeer. 2008. Effects of predatory ants on lower trophic levels across a gradient of coffee management complexity. Journal of Animal Ecology 77: 505-511.


Liere*, H. and I. Perfecto. 2008 Cheating in a mutualism: Indirect benefits of ant attendance to a coccidophagous coccinelid. Environmental Entomology 37: 143- 149.


Vandermeer, J., I. Perfecto and S. M. Philpott. 2008. Clusters of ant colonies and robust criticality in a tropical agroecosystem. Nature 451: 457-459.




Badgley, C., J. Moghtader*, E. Quintero*, E. Zakem*, J. M. Chappell*, K. Aviles-Vázquez*, A. Samulon*, and I. Perfecto. 2007. Organic agriculture and the global food supply. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 22 (2): 86-108.


Dietsch*, T.V., I. Perfecto, R. Greenberg. 2007. Avian foraging behavior in two coffee agroecosystems of Chiapas, Mexico. Biotropica 39: 232-240.


Vandermeer, J. and I. Perfecto. 2007. The agricultural matrix and the future paradigm for conservation. Conservation Biology 21: 274-277.




Perfecto, I. and J. Vandermeer. 2006. The effect of an ant-hemipteran mutualism on the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) in southern Mexico. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 117: 218-221.


Armbrecht*, I., I. Perfecto and E. Silverman. 2006. Limitation of nesting resources for ants in Colombian coffee plantations. Environmental Entomology 31: 403-410.


Vandermeer, J. and I. Perfecto. 2006. Response to comments on “ A keystone mutualism drives a power function.” Science 313: 1739.


Vandermeer, J., and I. Perfecto. 2006. A keystone mutualism drives pattern in a power function. Science 311: 1000-1002


Philpott*, SM, I. Perfecto and J. Vandermeer. 2006. Effects of management system and season on arboreal ant diversity and abundance in coffee agroecosystems. Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 139-155.


Jedlicka*, J., R. Greenberg, I. Perfecto and S. Philpott*. 2006. Seasonal foraging niche shifts of tropical avian residents: resource competition at work? Journal of Tropical Ecology 22:1-11.




Mascaro*, J., I. Perfecto, O. Barros*, D. Boucher, I. Granzow de la Cerda and J. Vandermeer. 2005. Above ground biomass accumulation in a tropical wet forest in Nicaragua following a catastrophic hurricane disturbance. Biotropica 37: 600- 608.


Perfecto, I., J. Vandermeer, A. Mas* and L. Soto Pinto. 2005. Biodiversity, yield and shade coffee certification. Ecological Economics 54: 435-446.


Bunker, D. E., F. De Clerck, R. K. Colwell, I. Perfecto, O. Phillips, M. Sankaran and S. Naeem. 2005. Biodiversity loss and above-ground carbon storage in a tropical forest. Science 310: 1029-1031.


Badgley and C. and I. Perfecto. 2005. Cuban science democratic and not tied to profits. Nature 437: 192.


Armbrecht*, I., L. Rivera, and I. Perfecto. 2005. Reduced diversity and complexity in the leaf litter ant assemblage of Colombian coffee plantations. Conservation Biology 19: 897-907.


Vandermeer, J. and I. Perfecto. 2005. The Future of Farming and Conservation. Science 308: 1257.




Perfecto, I., J. H. Vandermeer, G. López, G. Ibarra-Nuñez, R. Greenberg, P. Bichier and S. Langridge*. 2004. Greater predation of insect pests in a diverse agroecosystem: The role of resident Neotropical birds in shade coffee farms. Ecology 85: 2677-2681.


Vandermeer, J., Granzow de la Cerda, I. Perfecto, I. Boucher, D., Ruiz*, J., Kaufmann, A. 2004. Multiple basins of attraction in a tropical rain forest: evidence for non-equilibrium community structure. Ecology 85: 575-579.


Blair*, B. and I. Perfecto. 2004. Successional status and root foraging for phosphorus in seven tropical tree species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34: 1128-1135.


Jedlicka*, J., J. Vandermeer, K. Aviles-Vazquez*, O. Barros* and I. Perfecto. 2004. Gypsy moth defoliation of oak trees and a positive response of red maple and black cherry: an example of indirect interactions. The American Midland Naturalist 152: 231-236.


Philpott*, S., R. Greenberg, P. Bichier, and I. Perfecto. 2004. Impacts of major predators on tropical agroforest arthropods: comparisons within and across taxa. Oecologia 140: 140-149.


Armbrecht*, I., I. Perfecto, and J. Vandermeer. 2004. Enigmatic biodiversity correlations: ant diversity responds to diverse resources. Science 304: 284-286.


Philpott*, S. M., J. Maldonado*, J. Vandermeer and I. Perfecto. 2004. Taking trophic cascades up a level: behaviorally-modified effects of phorid flies on ants and ant prey in coffee agroecosystems. Oikos 105: 141-147.




Armbrecht*, I. and I. Perfecto. 2003. Litter ant’s diversity and predation potential in two Mexican coffee matrices and forest fragments. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 97: 107-115.


Perfecto, I., A. Mas*, Dietsch*, T. V. and J. Vandermeer. 2003. Species richness along an agricultural intensification gradient: A tri-taxa comparison in shade coffee in southern Mexico. Biodiversity and Conservation 12: 1239-1252.


Perfecto, I. and L. Vet. 2003. Response by two parasitoids to non-host plants: the tri-trophic system of Cotesia spp.(Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and Brassica oleraceae. Environmental Entomology 32: 163-174.




Soto-Pinto*, L., I. Perfecto, Castillo-Hernandéz, J. and Caballero-Nieto, J. 2002. Shade over coffee: its effects on berry borer, leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in Chiapas, Mexico. Agroforestry Systems 55: 37-45.


Vandermeer, J., I. Perfecto, G. Ibarra Nuñez, S. Philpott*, and A. Garcia Ballinas. 2002. Ants (Azteca sp.) as potential biological control agents in shade coffee production in Chiapas, Mexico. Agroforestry Systems 56:271-276.


Perfecto, I. and J. Vandermeer. 2002. The quality of the agroecological matrix in a tropical montane landscape: ants in coffee plantations in southern Mexico. Conservation Biology 16: 174-182.




Blair*, B.C. and I. Perfecto. 2001. Nutrient content and substrate effect on fine root density and size distribution in a Nicaraguan rain forest. Biotropica 33(4): 697-701.


Vandermeer, J., D. Boucher, I. Granzow de la Cerda, and I. Perfecto. 2001. Growth and development of the thinning canopy in a post hurricane tropical rain forest in Nicaragua. Forest Ecology and Management 148: 221-242.


Boucher, D., J.H. Vandermeer, I. Granzow, M. M. Mallona*, I. Perfecto, and N. Zamora. 2001. Post-agriculture versus post-hurricane succession in southeastern Nicaraguan rain forest. Plant Ecology 156: 131-137.


Morales*, H., I. Perfecto and B. Ferguson*. 2001. Traditional fertilization and its effect on corn insect populations in the Guatemalan highlands. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 84: 145-155.




Soto-Pinto*, L., I. Perfecto, Castillo-Hernández, J. and Caballero-Nieto, J. 2000. Shade effects on coffee production at the Northern Tzeltal zone of the State of Chiapas, Mexico. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 80:61-69.


Vandermeer, J., I. Granzow de la Cerda, D. Boucher, I. Perfecto, and J. Ruiz. 2000 Hurricane disturbance and tropical tree species diversity. Science 290: 788- 791.


Morales*, H. and I. Perfecto. 2000. Traditional knowledge and pest control in the Guatemalan highlands. Agriculture and Human Values 17: 49-63.


Vandermeer, J. and I. Perfecto. 2000. La biodiversidad y el control de plagas en sistemas agroforestales. Manejo Integrado de Plagas (Costa Rica) 55: 1-5. (Spanish Translation of Vandermeer and Perfecto, 1998, in Agroforestry Forum).





Vandermeer, J. and I. Perfecto. 1998. Political ecology of deforestation in Central America. In: Natural Contradictions: The Links between Ecological Science and Environmental Politics (Haila, Y. and P. Taylor, eds.). Science as Culture (Special Issue) 7 (4): 519-556.


Vandermeer, J. and I. Perfecto. 1998. Biodiversity and pest control in agroforestry systems. Agroforestry Forum 9 (2): 2-6.


Vandermeer, J., M. van Noordwijk, J. Anderson, C. Ong, and I. Perfecto. 1998. Global change and multi-species agroecosystems: concepts and issues. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 67: 1-22.


Perfecto, I., P. Hansen, J. Vandermeer, and V. Cartín. 1997. Arthropod biodiversity loss and the transformation of a tropical agro-ecosystem. Biodiversity and Conservation 6: 935-945.


Vandermeer, J. and I. Perfecto. 1997. The agroecosystem: a need for the conservation biologist's lens. Conservation Biology 11: 591-592.


Perfecto, I., and J. H. Vandermeer. 1996. Microclimatic changes and the indirect loss of ant diversity in a tropical agroecosystem. Oecologia 108: 577-582.


Perfecto, I., R. Rice, R. Greenberg, and M. Van der Voolt. 1996. Shade coffee as refuge of biodiversity. BioScience 46: 589-608.


Vandermeer, J., D. Boucher, I. Perfecto and I. Granzow de la Cerda. 1996. A theory of disturbance and species diversity: evidence from Nicaragua after hurricane Joan. Biotropica 28: 600-613.


Perfecto, I. and R. Snelling. 1995. Biodiversity and tropical ecosystem transformation: ant diversity in the coffee agroecosystem in Costa Rica. Ecological Applications 5: 1084-1097.


Boucher, D., J. Vandermeer, M. A. Mallona*, N. Zamora, and I. Perfecto. 1995. Resistance and resilience in a directly regenerating rain forest: Nicaraguan trees of the Vochysiaceae after Hurricane Joan. Journal of Forest Ecology 68: 128- 136.  


Vandermeer, J., M. A. Mallona*, D. Boucher, K. Yih and I. Perfecto. 1995. Three years of ingrowth following catastrophic damage on the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua: evidence in support of the direct regeneration hypothesis. Journal of Tropical Ecology 11: 465-471.


Perfecto, I. and J. H. Vandermeer. 1995. Understanding biodiversity loss in agroecosystems: Reduction of ant diversity resulting from transformation of the coffee ecosystem in Costa Rica. Entomology (Trends in Agricultural Sciences) 2: 7-13.


Perfecto, I. 1994. Foraging behavior as a determinant of asymmetric competitive interactions between two ant species in a tropical agroecosystem. Oecologia 98: 184-192.


Roth*, D. S., I. Perfecto, and B. Rathke. 1994. The effects of management systems on ground-foraging ant diversity in Costa Rica. Ecological Applications 4: 423-436.


Perfecto, I. 1994. The transformation of Cuban agriculture after the Cold War. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 9: 98-108.


Perfecto, I. and J.H. Vandermeer. 1993. Distribution and turnover rate of a population of Atta cephalotes in a tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. Biotropica 25 (3): 316-321.


Vandermeer, J., J. Carney, P. Gersper, I. Perfecto, and P. Rosset. 1993. Cuba and the dilemma of modern agriculture. Agriculture and Human Values 10: 3-8.


Dlott, J., I. Perfecto, P. Rosset, L. Burkham, J. Monterey, and J. Vandermeer. 1993. Management of insect pests and weeds. Agriculture and Human Values 10: 9-15.


Perfecto, I. and J. H. Vandermeer. 1993. Cleptobiosis in the ant Ectatomma ruidum in Nicaragua. Insectes Sociaux 40: 112-116.


Perfecto, I. 1992. Observations of a Labidus coecus (Latreille) underground raid in the central highlands of Costa Rica. Psyche 99 (2): 214-220.


Perfecto, I. and A. Sediles. 1992. Vegetational diversity, the ant community and herbivorous pests in a tropical agroecosystem in Nicaragua. Environmental Entomology 21: 61-67.


Perfecto, I. 1992. Pesticide exports to the Third World. Race and Class 34: 107-114.


Perfecto, I. 1991. Dynamics of Solenopsis geminata in a tropical fallow field after ploughing. Oikos 62: 139-144.


Perfecto, I. 1991. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as natural control agents of pests in irrigated maize in Nicaragua. Journal of Economic Entomology 84(1): 65- 70.


Perfecto, I. 1990. Indirect and direct effects in a tropical agroecosystem: the maize-pest-ant system in Nicaragua. Ecology 71: 2125-2134.



Perfecto, I. 1988. Variation in attack rates among subpopulations of Cocotrypes carpophagus utilizing Euterpe globosa seeds at three locations in Puerto Rico. Tropical Ecology 29: 114-120.


Shultz, B., H. McGuinness, B. Horwith, J. H. Vandermeer, C. Phillips, I. Perfecto, P. Rosset, R. Ambrose, and M. Hansen. 1987. Effects of planting densities, irrigation, and hornworm larvae on yields in experimental intercrops of tomatoes and cucumbers. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 112:747-755.


Perfecto, I., B. Shultz, J.H. Vandermeer, B. Horwith, H. McGuinness, and A. Dos Santos. 1986. Effects of plant diversity and density on movement patterns of two ground beetles on a system of tomatoes and beans. Environmental Entomology 15:1028-1031.


Vandermeer, J.H., R. Ambrose, M.K. Hansen, H. McGuinness, I. Perfecto, C. Phillips, P. Rosset, and B. Shultz. 1984. An ecologically-based approach to the design of intercrop agroecosystem: an intercropping system of soybeans and tomatoes in Southern Michigan. Ecological Modeling 25:121-150.


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